Herringbone is a particular weaving pattern, a variant of twill. The over and under weft thread offset that produces twill is reversed after a specified number of passes. This changes the direction of the diagonal wale.
Herringbone is named for the bone pattern of herring fish bones. It is one of many decorative patterns that can be achieved by changing the wale pattern. These include zigzag, undulations or waves and diamond patterns.
The fabric of the Shroud of Turin is a three hop (three over one) herringbone.
For a discussion of the herringbone pattern of the Shroud including a close-up photograph see: Why is the herringbone weave pattern of the Shroud important? Also see: How old is both linen and herringbone weaving? The relevance of the herringbone pattern is also discussed on the Pray-Codex page.