The Definitive Shroud of Turin FAQ

the shroud draws you in, doesn't let go, and reveals itself gradually

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What is the Hungarian Pray Codex?

The Hungarian Pray Codex, also commonly referred to as the Hungarian Pray Manuscript, is an ancient document in the Budapest National Library. It is named for György Pray (1723-1801), a Jesuit scholar historian who performed the first important study of it.  The codex is significant because it is the earliest known text in the ancient Finno-Ugric tribal languages of the Hungarian region.

This codex was written between 1192 and 1195. One illustration in the manuscript shows Jesus being placed on a burial shroud in one panel and a resurrection scene in another. The second panel shows a burial shroud with the identical pattern of burn holes found on the shroud. The artist has drawn the very unusual three-hop herringbone weave like that of the Shroud of Turin. There are a number of other depictions consistent with the Shroud. Jesus is shown naked with his arms modestly folded at the wrists, the fingers are unusually long and there are no visible thumbs. This seems artistically strange but to forensic pathologists this makes sense. They would simply be folded in under the whole of the hand.

The illustration also shows a clear mark on Jesus’ forehead where the most prominent 3-shaped bloodstain is found on the forehead of the man of the Shroud.   There can be little question that this illustrator of the Pray Codex, far removed from France and drawing at a time before the sacking of Constantinople knew something of the details about the Shroud.

Four Illustrations

  1. The living Jesus
  2. Jesus being taken down from the cross
  3. The burial and resurrection of Jesus (pertains to the Shroud)
  4. Christianity
  5. A text page from the Hungarian Pray Codex


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