Pantocrator from St. Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai
This is one of the most famous Christ Pantocrator icons. It is found at St. Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai and is believed to date from about A.D. 550.
It is widely thought to have been sourced from the image on the Shroud of Turin. See: What is the significance of the Christ Pantocrator from St. Catherine's?
It is a good example of the Vignon markings. Notice in particular the different lengths of the hair; the long thin nose; the large eyes, one being particularly raised; and the gap in the beard. But missing is the forked beard and the wisps of hair in the forehead.
This icon is an encaustic painting on wood. Encaustic paintings are made with hot beeswax that includes various color pigments.