Christianity Faiths

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Christian faith is something that cannot be described in words. It is not related to religion it is a way of life through which the love of God.
There are a lot of unanswerable questions in the Bible. But as the word of God says Blessed are the people who believe without seeing things.
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The entire journey of life is a quest for God. From the day we are born till the day we have buried the quest for God goes on and on.

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How could religious beliefs arise?

religious beliefs arise

Surely when seeing this type of alien practice you have ever wondered how much is true in our own religious beliefs, how they arose or why many of us believe in supernatural forces and beings. To try to answer some of these questions, biologists, psychologists, anthropologists, and historians, among others, have been joining forces for decades.

The key could be found in a mechanism that humans share with other animals: the hyper detection of agency, present at the base of animism, the belief that life, intentionality, will, or feelings similar to those of man are attributed to all objects of nature.

Agency Hyperdetection And The Principle Of Participation

Natural selection has fostered in most species a self-preservation instinct. That has fostered the spread of both their gene pool and their learned behaviors.

To maximize this evolutionary success, many animals, including humans, have developed an evolutionary strategy commonly known as agency hyper-sensing. This mechanism makes us stay on alert by assuming that there may be threats to our integrity behind certain unexpected sounds or movements.

A clear reflection is the detection of faces and bodies. Both human and animal, in all kinds of natural elements. From stones and trees to clouds and star clusters in the sky.

Probably one of the oldest examples of pareidolia is found in the cave of Lascaux, France. In it, dating around 15,300 BC, the constellation of Taurus would have been represented under the Pleiades cluster. Precisely, this constellation was one of the most revered in the Mediterranean and the Near East during ancient times.

Theoretical And Methodological Implications

religious beliefs Implications

Ultimately, significant efforts have been made to try to explain these evolutionary mechanisms. Thus, while a state of over-alert could facilitate the survival rate. The belief in supernatural agents could have arisen as a by-product. Ultimately generating advantages along the same lines.

The most widely accepted explanation for this is known as ” Pascal’s wager.” With this argument, it is argued that the belief in supernatural forces. And beings that can harm those who do not comply with their will have a priori few risks and great benefits. Regardless of whether these ideas and practices are true from a religious beliefs view.

For non-practitioners, to act or not in relation to its existence would not influence anything in their lives as long as it does not actually exist. However, if not, performing rituals and carrying objects against him would be much more beneficial than not doing so. From this point of view, the emergence of religious thought would have managed to consolidate thanks to the fear of the unknown.

As the reader will have noticed, the explanation developed here does not focus on religion’s personal and social utilitarianism. Instead, an attempt has been made to explain what could have been the emergence of such practices and beliefs. Animism is not a group resource to explain the beginning of beliefs in the supernatural.

Based on this assumption, animism could have been constructed from a sum of individual perceptions. From this point of view, the origin of religious beliefs can be traced anthropologically and, by comparison, with the archaeological record. This apparent contradiction between presentist hypotheses and studies on past groups should not be seen as a problem. Quite the opposite. Being aware of its limitation offers enormous potential for the archaeological discipline.

You may also be interested in Beliefs, values, ​​and attitudes in Argentine society

Beliefs, values, ​​and attitudes in Argentine society

Argentine society beliefs

A new national survey carried out by CONICET researchers makes it possible to trace links between religious affiliations and views on various key issues. Knowing through empirical data the religious beliefs and practices that go through Argentine society. And the way in which these are correlated with the educational level, gender, age, or region of residence. As well as with moral and political considerations, is key to being able to dismantle.  Certainly established preconceptions and avoid falling into associations made too lightly.

In this sense, the National Survey on Religious Beliefs and Attitudes in Argentina. Carried out in 2019 by the Society, Culture and Religion program of the Society. Culture and Religion Program of the Center for Labor Studies and Research (CEIL, CONICET), is a fundamental contribution. Because it is its second edition, the first took place in 2008. It has the added value of allowing us to observe changes that took place during the last decade and to notice ongoing processes.

“Beliefs have significant weight when it comes to explaining people’s actions and that is why it is important to study them. In this sense, it is necessary to support social science research because otherwise, those who have power are those who do the work and handle the information privately. Our proposal, on the contrary, is to put this knowledge at the service of Argentine society and make it publicly available to those who want to consult it ”, says Fortunato Mallimaci, senior researcher at CONICET and one of the survey directors..

Decline of Catholicism

Argentine society Catholicism

In relation to the 2008 survey, at the national level, there is a significant decline in adherence to Catholicism. Which in any case continues to be the majority- and growth of evangelicals. And of the segment that is not recognized in any institutionalized religion, as well as also of the atheists and agnostics. This is the case –although to different degrees- for the six regions of Argentina: AMBA, Patagonia, Centro, Cuyo, NEA, and NOA.

In just eleven years, adherence to the Catholic faith went from being over three-quarters of the population to just under 63%. Meanwhile, those without religion increased from 11.3% to 18.9% and evangelicals did so from 9% to 15.3%.

“A certain decrease in Catholicism, although more tenuous, can begin to be noticed in the passage from 1947 to 1960. Which is when the last two national population censuses were carried out. Which a question about religious affiliation was included. At that time, Catholics went from being 93% to 90.5%. This general trend is not exclusive to Argentina but is common to the different countries of the region. And more generally, to all the countries that once had Catholic hegemony. Something similar happens with the rising curve of those without religion and evangelicals. Points out Verónica Giménez Béliveau, independent researcher at CONICET and also director of the survey.

According to the researcher, in Argentina, compared to other Latin American countries. those without religion seem to grow at a higher rate, while evangelicals do so more gradually.

Views on society: a challenge for human rights

The tendency of Argentine society to move away from traditional positions. On issues related to sexual and family diversity does not necessarily have its correlation. With a progressive vision regarding other social issues.

More than 70% believe that there should be stricter control of the entry of immigrants. And just over half of the people say they are in favor of the introduction of the death penalty for serious crimes.

“These considerations in our opinion constitute a real challenge for Human Rights. This type of conservatism is more frequent in Catholics than among evangelicals. Who has greater resistance to change in aspects such as family diversity or the legalization of drugs?

Society, State, and religion

The results of the recent survey, when compared with those of the one carried out eleven years ago. Make it possible to assert that there is a growing tendency on the part of the Argentine population. Already underway in 2008 – to consider that it is preferable to keep the religious sphere separate from the religious sphere. state.

“If in 2008, the consideration that the State should not finance religious confessions had the adherence of 41.7% of the people. Today the figure rises to about 60%. Although with different figures, this position is the majority in the three large groups. On the other hand, the conviction that the State should only take charge of the financing of the Catholic Church. Already a minority a decade ago, went from 34.4% – just over a third of the total of those surveyed – to only 6.4% “, Warns Esquivel.

A similar situation occurs with regard to opinions about religious teaching in public schools. The idea that only the Catholic religion should be taught is a minority even among devotees of this cult. Among whom it reaches little more than 10 percent adherence. On the other hand, among the general population, the consideration that there should be no religious education in public schools. Less than three percentage points higher than that which indicates that there should be a general subject on religions. Which in 2008 was the majority.

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Respect for freedom of belief, a right beyond the churches

freedom of belief should respect

Under the protection of the Political Constitution of Colombia of 1886. The Catholic Church was a power parallel to the public. This has changed – at least on paper – since the 1991 Charter. Which recognized the freedom of belief as a fundamental right.

During the twenty years in which Professor Aydé Muñoz worked in public schools. She only accepted to teach the subject of Religion once. His area was technology, but — like other elementary and middle school teachers. He had to supplement his working hours with courses outside of his university training. He faced this challenge without major curricular guidelines since the best known among teachers are those that emerge from the religious education guidelines of the.

Since 1991, the country has been a secular or non-denominational state. Which in theory prevents this matter from being taught in public schools according to documents or doctrines of a specific confession or church. “As there were no guidelines, then there was a lot of academic freedom. And I based on my own convictions to focus the class on the history of religions.” The professor said, now retired, after 30 years of teaching experience in public and private schools.

The institution did not require training and suitability to be able to give this chair: “The schools do have a teacher certified in religious education, but those who give us hours to fill in the hourly intensity do not require more than our degree. One from his training knows that he has to be very responsible in planning, exploring the epistemological part so that it is not confessional or catechesis. One is more open to focus on the area, “he said.

However, this openness is not common. According to the sociologist and researcher at the National University, Wilmar Beltrán, on the contrary, it is easier for teachers to adhere to the guidelines that the Catholic Church proposes. And that impart their confessional vision in the classrooms since many are part of 57.2 % of Colombian Catholics and they teach the course from their religious perspective with the students.

Decree 4500 of 2006 of the Ministry of Education dictates the regulations on this matter in educational establishments. From pre-school to middle school. According to this article, the teacher must have a “certificate of suitability” issued by the ecclesiastical authority. Precisely, in his study «The class of Religion in the public schools of Bogotá» (2020), Beltrán points out that this certificate and its issuance do not obey an academic requirement in the strict sense, but rather ecclesiastical.

Article 68 of the Constitution states that in State establishments no person may be forced to receive religious education. Professor Beltrán pointed out that very few student. Parents and teachers also know about this right and that, “for teachers and directors of public schools. It is not practical to inform students and their parents about the optional nature of the class”, as this would require designing new academic activities for those who express their willingness to be exempted.

Freedom of belief

Freedom of belief constitution

The current panorama is very different from that expressed in the Constitution of 1886. Which was in force for 105 years and in which it was promulgated that the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman religion was that of the Nation. And that it enjoyed the protection of public powers as an essential element of social order. “The Catholic Church remained as a kind of parallel power, ” explained Tulio Elí Chinchilla Herrera, a constitutional lawyer at the University of Antioquia.

What is at the bottom of this discussion due to the perspective in which Religion is dictated in public schools? And the guarantees enshrined in the 1991 Constitution. When the National Constituent Assembly, on behalf of the “people of Colombia” – no longer ” in the name of God »- guarantees freedom of worship. “Everyone has the right to freely express their religion. And to spread it individually and collectively,” says the Charter, adding that all confessions and churches are equally free before Colombian law. In addition to that, they must be respected without favoritism on the part of the State.

Although the 1991 Constitution defends and guarantees religious freedom as a fundamental right in its article 19. In practice progress is still pending: a close relationship between the State and the Catholic Church persists. Expressed not only in the curricular and regulatory gaps regarding Religion classes but also in the presence of Catholic icons. And official establishments such as mayors, battalions, colleges and universities and, even, in the presidential possession that includes an oath “before God.”

“The confessional state in many of its expressions remains,” concluded Professor Chinchilla Herrera, adding that, although Catholics are still the majority in Colombia. The Constitution is “the fundamental political pact on which we all agree. If non-believers are excluded, for example, there is already discrimination.

Political power

Colombian politics has been related and conditioned by the relationship with the Catholic Church. And, at present, by different evangelical currents. The priest and doctor in Philosophy of the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Carlos Arboleda Mora, pointed out that, although the Catholic Church was strongly linked to the State until 1991. Its proximity to political power has diminished, while new religious groups assumed that role. One sees that there are some Pentecostals with open political participation and their own party. With clear, visible support and publicizing a certain candidate.

It is not a phenomenon exclusive to Colombia. In Brazil, where one in four voters is evangelical, these groups have a broad representation of congressmen who are, in turn, religious leaders. Proof of this is that President Jair Bolsonaro was elected by evangelical voters through his nomination with the Social Christian Party.

According to Professor Chinchilla Herrera, the presence of the Catholic Church in Colombia. The progress that multiple churches or freedom of belief have had in the electoral and political scene. And also due to an absence or weak presence of governments in some vulnerable – rural areas, mainly-. The church goes where they do not reach, “because we have more territory than the State,” commented the teacher.

For his part, Arboleda Mora expressed concern by pointing out that many of these new religions. That reach the political spectrum are more akin to the ideology of the right. This is expressed in the questioning of abortion and the open rejection of euthanasia, assisted suicide. And the LGBTI population groups—, which generates more polarization within Colombia and other Latin American countries.

You may also like to read 5 tips for reporting on religious matters

5 tips for reporting on religious matters

religious matters

History has taught us that great wars have been started by conflicts between groups with different religious beliefs. The attacks on the satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo show how religion remains a sensitive and dangerous issue for journalists to tackle.

For this reason, Brian Pellot, global director of strategy for the Religion News Service, has published a list of 5 useful tips for reporters that cover topics related to religion in hostile environments.

These tips are primarily intended to be useful for Western journalists working in countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, or Syria. But they are valid for any reporter who wants to report on matters where religion is a source of conflict, without dying in the attempt:

  1. Know the limits

If you want to cross borders, you have to understand them first. Freedom of expression is grossly undervalued in many countries. Catch up on local laws and cultural sensitivities so you know taboo topics before you get into trouble.

  1. Let Your Sources Say What You Can’t

Include alternative voices in your reports, of people who express ideas and opinions you could not express or who represent identities that are often ignored or distorted by the press. This may sound like a basic tenet of good journalism, but it is also a powerful way to bridge the gap and highlight local controversies and debates. Just make sure that the inclusion of such statements does not constitute a danger to you or your sources.

  1. Write anonymously

If you don’t mind having articles or opinion columns published without your respective author credit, consider writing anonymously or under a pseudonym.

Don’t believe for a second that doing so will make you totally untouchable. But if you are reporting on sensitive topics, you must take all necessary precautions to avoid being tracked, tracked, or identified. If you don’t, you are not only compromising your own safety but also that of your sources.

Get started with some basic privacy tips like those offered by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Tor, Privacy International, and Access Now.

  1. Report from exile

It will hardly be an ideal scenario, but reporting from another country is often a necessary option. If journalists and citizens are unable to cover sensitive religious topics from within their countries. They can safely and anonymously supply information to foreigners who have a wide audience.

Still, journalists living and working abroad must always keep in mind the safety of their family, friends, colleagues, and sources in their home countries. IranWire is a great example of this way of reporting.

  1. Write between the lines

If you are concerned about automatic keyword censorship on the internet, get creative. Internet users in China have always referred to the Tiananmen Square incident on June 4, 1989. As “the thirty-fifth of May.” This strategy generally works only as a stopgap until the censors react. But if your readers understand this form of cipher language, go ahead and give it a try.

You may also like to read, What are the most widely practiced religions of the world?

Religions serve society

Religions serve

Religions, by the fact of existing in a society, are permanently leaving messages of solidarity, respect, brotherhood, and forgiveness. They constantly assure that the other human being is a neighbor and that is important in our technified world in which we live.

Religious traditions achieve the articulation of an awareness of what we lack. In his work Between naturalism and religion, Habermas exhorts not to annul these traditions in current secularized societies. This message is the most authentic that religions offer to society, although they have not always been consistent. However, as Pope Francis says, the religions “repeat a loud and clear no to all forms of violence, revenge, and hatred committed in the name of religion or the name of God. Together we affirm the incompatibility between faith and violence, between believing and hating ”.

If they are consistent with their faith, religious people constitute a call to spirituality, to transcendence, an invitation to that which is deeply human. The world becomes more human thanks to the states of opinion created by religions in favor of all that is human. Today there is a field in which religion is especially significant, and that is that of brotherhood. What is proper to Christianity is not to love humanity, but to love one’s neighbor, the specific person.

Religions also positively impact society’s cohesion, as highlighted by the analysis of experiences from various countries. Religious fact is closely linked to the social assets of society. The service that religions render to society is of great magnitude and very important in the pre-political order of moral ideas and values, of the global images of man and life.

To become more aware of this service to society, one has to think a little about what would become of our cities without the presence of Christians, parishes, religious communities, and all other ecclesial realities, such as Caritas.

They would be cities with many shortcomings from the point of view of spirituality, social coexistence, care for the poor and marginalized, the elderly, the sick, teaching, culture, etc., admitting that many other non-ecclesial realities also render their precious service in these fields.

You may also like to read, What are the most widely practiced religions of the world?

How to have faith in yourself?

faith in yourself

Having confidence in yourself is essential when it comes to being successful in an endeavor as it helps combat your anxieties about a new project. However, if you don’t have faith in yourself, follow these practical tips:

Steps to have faith in yourself


You have made good decisions based on reliable information. Before making a decision, make sure you’ve done a lot of research. Once you have done this, you must have the confidence to take the next step regardless of the opinion of others.

Stop worrying about the fear of failure

Many times we experience a sense of premature failure that has nothing to do with reality. For example, before taking an exam. Don’t let fear of failure paralyze you? Think that learning from mistakes is always healthy.

During transition periods, keep priorities clear

Any new project needs perseverance and determination. As much as eventualities or unplanned things arise, you should not change your priorities. For example, if you have decided to finish an academic career and a job opportunity arises, do not let it discourage you or blur you from your studies.

Getting what you want means giving up some things

Continuing in line with what was raised in the previous point, you must be clear that pursuing a dream often means having to give up things we want. Don’t be afraid to make decisive decisions if the moment warrants it.

Go ahead and have faith that you will come to fruition

The best recipe to have faith in yourself is to have confidence in the decisions we make and, in addition, to rely on the people who love us and surround us. Don’t hesitate to ask the people who know you best for advice when you feel cloudy on your way. They can help you restore your self-confidence and give you the strength to keep going on all your projects.

Keep your promises

We lose confidence when we fail to keep our promises for too long. On January 1st (or when we return from vacation), we promise to get back in shape, and inevitably, we find ourselves a year later fatter and unmotivated than ever. If you want to have greater self-esteem, make few promises to yourself, make them realistic, and above all keep them.

Set yourself a small goal and achieve it

Many para-gurus argue that to be successful in life, you have to set yourself ambitious goals. If you have set yourself goals for too long that you have not met on time, giving yourself yet another impossible goal is the sure way to failure. Goals only work if they help you trigger a virtuous circle in which each goal achieved is followed by a reward that motivates you to achieve even more important goals: I call it the little success algorithm. If you want to create this virtuous circle, stop giving yourself goals that you don’t even believe in: give yourself a small goal, a close goal in time, but do everything to achieve it.

Change a little habit

Speaking of small goals: do you want to go back to believing in yourself? Change your daily habit. Stop doing those radical change-of-life shit in the “January 1st” style: they are not needed by a beloved fried chip. Instead, choose one, and only one, a small habit that you want to eliminate, change or establish; dedicate 30 days to it and move on to the next habit.


If you don’t exercise regularly, here’s habit # 1 that will help you regain your confidence and ultimately change your life. Training constantly goes far beyond health, well-being, and physical fitness: sport is a school of life. Any physical activity requires resilience, determination, motivation. Everything you learn between the machines of a gym, the tubs of a swimming pool, and the streets of a marathon can be found on the benches of the university or the desk of your office. Train your muscles to strengthen your spirit.


Can you do anything to solve your problems? Smile and foul. Can’t you do anything to fix them? Smile and frigate. In short, don’t forget to smile: it is a gesture as simple as it is effective for improving your mood and giving a boost to your self-esteem.

Apply the 3-minute rule

Sometimes it takes damn little to regain self-confidence; to be exact, in my experience, in some cases 3 minutes or so may be enough.

Be grateful

I’ve told you before about the power of gratitude. Yet too many people still believe that being grateful is a new age thing for poor unsuspecting people. So for the past 5 years, I have been writing in my diary every night 3 things I was grateful for during the day: it changed my life. If you learn to focus on what works in your life instead of always complaining like a whiner, your self-esteem will inevitably arise.

Focus on solutions

I’ll tell you a secret: we all have problems. I know that feeling like the most unlucky human being in the world is something you are particularly proud of, but continuing to tell yourself how much your life sucks is unlikely to help you regain your confidence. So rather than obsessively thinking about your problems, learn to focus on possible solutions to those problems.

Help someone

It is surprising how the most anxious and insecure people are always focused on themselves, while the most serene and self-confident ones take care of others. I am not saying that you have to become a volunteer for Africa, but instead of always feeling sorry for yourself, sincerely care for others, listen to them and try to help them. “André, I always worry about others, but it’s the others who don’t care about me!” Gnegnegné gnegnegné. How I can’t stand this sentence! Helping someone just because we expect that someone to reciprocate is something self-righteous and selfish. Help someone selflessly.


How many books do you read in a year? 10? 5? 1? Nobody?! Nah, Ikea instructions don’t matter. There are at least 5 good reasons to read 52 books a year, but numbers aside, the more you read, the more ideas you develop. The more ideas you develop, the more projects you make. The more projects you do, the more … your confidence grows. Read. Point.

You may also like to read, 5 types of faith people have

5 types of faith people have

Types of faith

Everyone has a Kind of faith, but few can identify the Kind they really have. The definition is belief in something, according to the dictionary. It is the belief in God and in the things that God can do, according to the Bible. Many people can cite the definition found in Hebrews 11: 1 that says, “Faith is the substance of what is hoped for, the evidence of what is not seen.” However, that is all that some people know.


Although faith is an important part of a person’s life, there are different types. Actually, it can be categorized into five different types.

Sometimes the types overlap, and sometimes people can have more than one type at any one time. There is a problem when a person feels they have none. The good news is that everyone has something. However, it may not be activated. It’s like having a The good news is that everyone has something. However, it may not be activated. It is like having a credit card with a large amount, but until the card is activated, it cannot be used. Once activated, it can be used as long as money is available on the card.


Of the five types, one is not more important than the other. Also, while a person exposes their belief, it is not necessary to hang onto what type they are experiencing.

Justifying faith is the confidence a person has that they have been forgiven as if they had never sinned, according to 1 John 1: 9. This is probably the first type that people recognize as they are saved.

Biblical faith is the type that is based on examples of people in the Bible, such as Abraham, David, and Paul.

The Government approves the Law of ‘riders’ that turns delivery men into workers

It is when a person lives as people of faith in the Bible. Paul talks a lot on this subject in his books in the New Testament.

Faith within is the habit of practicing God’s presence by communing with God moment by moment. It is evident when a person shows that he has full confidence that the

Holy Spirit is living within him to direct everything he does.

Daily faith is knowing without a doubt that God will meet a person’s needs, even when it is not obvious. It is not limited to being in church on Sundays and studying the Bible on Wednesday nights. You feel safe 24 hours a day no matter what the situation is.

There may be more or less than five types of lists, but most can be summarized in the categories above. In addition, they can be identified by other names. Use the list above to monitor your own faith. You will see that the types overlap and that you have more than one type. Some people have confessed that they generally have all five types. It can be helpful to care about your measure of faith more than that of others.

You may also like to use: What are the differences between sect and religion?

What are the differences between sect and religion?

differences between sect and religion

When talking about spiritual beliefs, two terms usually come up: religion and sects, the latter loaded with a negative connotation that is not always correct. We know that they are different, but exactly what are the differences between sect and religion? In what respects are they different? If you want to know more about this interesting topic, we explain how to differentiate them.


According to the encyclopedia of the Castilian, it is a set of beliefs and dogmas about divinity, feelings, awe and fear towards it, moral norms for individual and social behavior, and ritual practices, especially prayer and sacrifice to worship him.

Religion – whatever it may be – consists of the belief or worship of one or more gods.

Also, it carries the notion of obedience to divine commandments, as they are reflected in the Holy Scriptures of each religion.

Other definition of religion: Set of beliefs and duties that arise from man’s dependence on God; likewise, as the expression of man’s relationship with God.

The Second Vatican Council has said that the exercise of religion consists of those interior acts, voluntary and free, using which the human being marks the course of his existence in the direction of God.

All nations, all civilizations – even the most primitive ones – have beliefs, ceremonies, rituals, and codes of morals.

Although the variety of these religious expressions is quite wide, this fact – historically verifiable – demonstrates the existence of God’s desire on the part of human beings and the existence of natural law; both things inscribed by God himself in the hearts of all humans. Religion, then, is part of the very nature of man.

In recent years, the problem is that although recently the religious spirit has been resurgent, it has deviated, and many people have tried to design their religion, a combination of many others according to each individual.


The word sect comes from the Latin secure, which means sectarian, to cut. Also, this term has its origin in the word secede, which means to separate. In both cases always present the idea of ​​separation.

In Europe, the word sect has been conceived as derived, mainly, from sequi, to follow; and it is associated with the idea of ​​following a teacher, a Leader.

According to the definition given by Yves de Gibon in the Dictionary of Religions compiled by Cardinal Paul Poupard, the term sect designates a group opposed to the doctrine and structures of the Church and also implies, most of the time, the idea of ​​dissent. In a broader sense, it applies to every minority religious movement.

For its part, the Secretariat for the Union of Christians of the Vatican State in a study – carried out in 1984 – states that for practical reasons, sects are defined as “some religious groups with a specific conception of the world, derived from, but not entirely by the teachings of the great world religions. ‘

Hence a first distinction that should not be ignored: the origin of each sect. That is, if they were born within the Christian religion or if they are based on other religions.

In the case of those that arise within Christianity, the criterion to distinguish between sects of Christian origin, on the one hand, and Church and ecclesial communities on the other, must be based on the sources of the teaching of these groups.

In this way, the sects could be those groups that, in addition to the Bible, have other revealed books or prophetic messages; that exclude some proto-canonical texts from the Bible or radically change their content.

A sect is a group separated from the Christian totality and believes itself to be the only possessor of all truth. It closes itself around leaders. It excludes the others, he considers them as unsaved and acts proselytizing.

A sect is the existential, theoretical and practical key, of those who belong to an autonomous group, non-Christian, fanatically proselytizing, exalting personal effort and expectant of a marvelous change, whether collective – of humanity – or of individuals or of man, in a kind of superman.


-Autonomy: the sect is a refuge. They reject society, its values ​​, and institutions. The community itself replaces everything. Here they are kept pure, perfect, saved.

They try to achieve their autonomy, but they do not respect that of the other. In this instability, uncertainty, loneliness is present. They believe they are absolute possessors of the truth.


Only the members of the sect are chosen, accepted by God. The adept is the light. And since we are in the end times, we must prepare for salvation. But the interpretation of salvation is usually reduced by the revelations of the initiators of the community.


Personal experiences and religious experiences are highlighted; they are about fostering a fraternity climate among the members. In worship, everything that reaches sentiment is favored, such as appropriate songs and testimonies. Psychological dependence on the leader and the group is created.


Membership of a sect requires voluntary and free adherence to its values ​​and norms. The sect demands to be a living, militant, and active member; it comprises voluntary members, although some, after certain stages, have permanence requirements to keep their secrets.

They consider themselves saints. The others are worldly, sinners. They must be willing to sacrifice and follow strong ethical standards.


The formation is not important but charism, experience, dedication to the ideal of the group. Sometimes, the exclusivist nature of the environment in which the individual lives causes them to leave the study, friends, even family, dedicating all their time to the sect. They do not want to contaminate themselves with the world, which they call a place of darkness.


It often happens that men act out of fear rather than love, and in the sects, the threat of condemnation is very present, that the end is near. Methods of instilling fear appear easily in the writings and words of the sect faithful.


The sect group must function perfectly. For this, nothing better than an authority that commands decisively.

This comes from the teacher who has had a peculiar experience or revelation, and nothing is discussed but accepted blindly obeying.

There is a total surrender to the sect. The individual closes himself and protects himself within it. As a consoling reward, the sectarian group makes the faithful believe that he is worthy of belonging to the sect. He is chosen, saved.


More than before the masses, the sects appear before the individual promising him perfection. They claim to offer them immediate and attractive salvation.

To do this, they break contact with the world because it is evil and doomed. Since luxury, riches, and everything that gives pleasure is bad, it must be despised. What matters is the future and uncontaminated behavior.


Sects fall into a biblical simplification. We must recognize many of them who attach importance to the Bible, who guide and motivate to read it, which is something familiar to all its faithful.

The problem is that they confront her with a sect stance, adapt it to their plans, and use it as a strategy to attack and confuse weak or untrained people. His favorite books are Daniel and the Apocalypse.

They fall into reductionism and subjectivism. Many remove, because it does not suit them, seven books of the Old Testament: Tobias, Judith, Maccabees, II Maccabees, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, and Baruch.


This is the only activity that many silks have, towards the world and society. In the proselytizing task, they use the Bible and their own publications. Examples of this are Mormons and Jehovah’s Witnesses. The Bible is a good tactic to get attention and encourage group membership. They use it as a means. They say they teach to read and understand the Bible, although sometimes they falsify it. They use studied communication techniques in visits to homes, squares, stadiums, radio, television. They are propaganda specialists.

They have a friendly, receptive, cheerful proselytizing style, attentive to others’ needs and problems, and appear helpful and friendly. The most important idea in preaching is conversion. A change of life is requested, a break with the past marked by sin, evil, vice, error.


Many of the silks claim to be Christian; However, when analyzing them, it is concluded that they are not because they fail in terms of one, several, or all the elements of the basic Christian faith.

About Christ, some silks defend that Jesus is a teacher, a leader, a being with special powers and knowledge. Some point out that Christ is inferior to the eternal God of the Bible, who did not exist as God from all eternity. Jehovah’s Witnesses claim that he was Jehovah’s first creature.

Focus on Faith: How many different kinds of faith are there?

We are going to begin to study the seven kinds of faith that we find in the Holy Scriptures. We will discover from the Holy Scriptures that we really do not know what it really means to have faith. Without further adding, let’s begin: Much is said about faith, we as a people have been asked to have faith, but in reality, we do not know it well.

How many different kinds of faith are there?


In its original etymology, unbelief is a type of faith, is oligospermia, which means: difficult to believe, disbelief and disobedience. It does not believe in God and his word, but believing people, amulets, superstitions, rather, believing everything except God. Our sincere fidelity to Christ is lost (disoriented or corrupted) by our senses, that is, by what we can touch, look at, hear, smell and taste. In the application, how many times have we not been impressed by what some preachers do many times without having found the teaching and rather motivating people for the show and the spectacle?


On several occasions, Jesus told the disciples men of little faith. The word little faith comes from the Greek oligopolists and means lack of confidence and having believed without acting what has been believed. The man and woman of little faith despair and do not resolve. They remain stuck in the face of difficult life circumstances.


He is the one who believes but, when faced with circumstances, begins to move in his own strength. This word comes from the Greek prosdokao, which means unstable, unstable, double-minded. When he walked on water, let’s remember Peter for a moment, he believed, but then he began to doubt he was beginning to sink (Matthew 14:22 – 33). How many people do we know like this, even we have gone through there, believing for a moment but the problem comes, makes it difficult and gets discouraged?


This FAITH comes combined with the grace of GOD and comes from the original Greek pisteuo, which means to have faith regarding God, his word, Christ, and his saving power by grace. It is the faith in a salvation that does not need human methods, nor the philosophy of men, much less religion.


It comes from the Greek pehito and means security, trust, and fidelity to the word of God. This kind of faith, because it is so simple, needs to be nourished by the name of God so that it grows. As you understand the truths of God through the study of the Bible, your faith grows stronger.


It comes from the Greek tosoutos. It is a type of sure faith firm that has matured developing by believing God, the Lord Jesus Christ, his word, and his promises. For example, the faith of the Roman centurion.


It comes from the Greek pistis, which means credibility, truth, and righteousness, giving credit to God’s word, confidence, assurance, and sure hope. In this kind of faith, we find that it is the most powerful than the other six. Each one in his process goes up in level, but his goal is to reach the seventh kind of faith. Reaching this level of faith is the maximum because we no longer depend on the teachings or traditions of men or on philosophies, much less on humanism as we saw in Colossians 2: 8. This is where we really started to enjoy the gospel because it is the faith of Christ in me that is who I.



Intuition vs. the evidence


Intuition is always key when making decisions, especially in contexts with low quality or complex information, but if we add evidence to it, with new technologies and successful management models, the results will be superior.

Imagination to power, a phrase written on the walls during the French May 1968, was based on the surrealist ideal.

Imagination allowed them to know what could become. That time represented a before and after in the assessments linked to history. The phenomenon credited the hypothesis that the student movement was not a generational conflict but that it had political ingredients that symbolized the dispute with capitalism.

The truth of the imagination was presented as a demand for political action and as a break with oppression, by rebelling against the principles of the system. The change generated by the aesthetic dimension and imagination would cause a different and effective revolution. Let’s be realistic, demand the impossible. The students wanted to bring the imagination to power. But poetry had no method and played against what perhaps could have been possible.

Types of imagination

Imagine a cloud in the shape of a dragon, a giant sparrow with the face of Trump, there is no heaven or hell, a mosquito-sized hippopotamus, a snake that eats the lion. The imagined may or may not exist (reproductive or creative imagination).

Imagining is something that is learned, it is a human form of mental activity. Symbolic thinking, the invention of combinations, had its development with the invention of the alphabet.

Imagination caused the first humans to generate inventions that required seeing far beyond the present: they imagined a world that did not yet exist. It was an evolutionary advantage. They were able to guess what was going through the minds of others (theory of mind and basis of empathy) necessary to maintain group cohesion. Tell stories by the light of the fire, to give yourself heat, surprise, terror, etc. Imagination created one of his greatest legacies: culture.

The current type of imagination allows us to create worlds with different rules and to believe in utopias. How long was imagination in power? Could we explore chance? Do we decree happiness? If today we still remember May 68, it is because something left us, it changed the way we look and think. We remain realistic, we ask the impossible. The brain does it every day.

Get into dreams

After minutes of sleeping, the brain enters a kind of limbo between being awake and asleep. During the first phase of sleep, which lasts about 5 minutes, the mind relaxes, lets less logical and structured thoughts flow, becomes malleable and less inhibited. This manifests itself in dreams over which some control can be exercised.

Dormio is software that detects when you are about to sleep and takes advantage of it to enter. When it detects the dream phase, it activates stimuli with keywords, which guide the dream. When he is entering deep sleep, it wakes him up to tell him what he dreamed.

Dormio has open-source, anyone with programming knowledge, with the manuals, can install it at home. The project includes stimulating creativity in the first phase of sleep, exploring the following phases, and seeing how it can be useful to improve other cognitive aspects such as memory and learning.

The cognitive activity was detected in a vegetative state. The patient was able to imagine walking around his house, while his brain activity was recorded with a resonance. When the person imagines, the brain produces a characteristic pattern that can be measured.

Imagining hitting a ball produces a great activation in the supplementary motor area, related to movement and preparation for action. Imagining yourself walking through the house activates regions associated with orientation in space.

When the brain in a vegetative state produces this activation, it is an indicator of consciousness. Using his imagination he was able to convey that he knew who he was, where he was, and what year it was.

The ability to learn was also preserved. For example, he knew the name of the person taking care of him, whom he had not met before the accident. He was also able to express preferences and confirm that he was not in pain. These tests open the possibility of penetrating people in a vegetative state. Likewise, they contribute to expanding knowledge about the clinical picture, the prognosis of the treatment, and the recovery time.

The anchoring effect

Many believe that only human beings can make correct decisions. The anchoring effect contaminates opinion through peripheral or irrelevant information.

One mental contamination experiment was carried out by psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, who spun a roulette wheel marked with the numbers 1 to 100 and then asked the study subjects a question that had nothing to do with the result of the roulette rotation: What percentage of African countries belong to the UN? They all gave an approximate solution. The funny thing is that their responses were tainted by the number that had stopped at the roulette wheel. If it came out 10, the typical response was 25%.

If 65 was rolled, the typical response was 45%. This effect occurs frequently in our daily lives.

Intuition versus evidence

Intuition is always key when making decisions, especially in contexts with low quality or complex information, but if we add evidence to it, with new technologies and successful management models, the results will be superior.

Analytically competitive people start with the facts, continue with the analysis, and end with the evaluation. Technology facilitates the increase of information. A large amount is repetitive, erroneous, or banal, but it is information and increases by 60% each year.

Socializing generates more information, and faster

There is so much unstructured data that it requires training in sophisticated analytical tools to understand the information.

This is called big data, but the vast majority do not recognize its bias and brain flaws when dealing with objective, quantifiable and statistical data. This does not mean that judgment and intuition are not important, or that studies cannot contain errors. It only indicates that you have to be prepared to use analysis to objectively form your own judgments.

The natural tendency is to make a decision and then look for evidence to support it. The negative consequence of allowing this faulty decision-making process to flow is that you could probably find some facts that would support any decision.

The quantity of data demands a new discipline of evidence-based management. To be competitive, management must start with facts, analysis, and then evaluation.

With a very low budget, Beane built a baseball team made up of players nobody wanted and, against all odds, Oakland Athletics became the first to win more than 20 games in a row. The story inspired the movie Moneyball, in which Brad Pitt plays the manager who has changed his recruiting parameters.

Build on the evidence

It is about collecting the data they find, carrying out the pertinent analysis, and choosing the path they dictate, without privileging personal evaluations that go against it and applying quantitative information to key decisions.

The results of competing with both ways of working are revealing, but intuition continues to be played and executives are going in the wrong direction again and again.

Another serious problem is that they do not know how to interpret the data. You need quality information and for that, you must ask the right questions and have the appropriate technology.

Google’s artificial intelligence system beat the world champion of the popular board game Go, in five games the machine won four. His opponent, the Korean Lee Sedol, claimed that the machine performed unusual movements that no player would have made.

Artificial intelligence does not think better than humans: it thinks differently. It has another way of generating knowledge. The machines seem to have excellent judgment. Reducing decision-making to intuition without evaluating the information collected or not listening to common sense to blindly obey what the data says does not solve the problem either.

They are not opposing concepts, but complementary

What it is about is that human intervention allows the data to speak. Big data and analytics are necessary but not sufficient conditions to optimize decision-making. The intuition of the one who knows and that of the visionary who conceptualizes future bets are also essential.

Without information, we have a person with your opinion. It is best to ask the data and assess whether the answer is reasonable. Not trusting 100% on data or intuition. The growth of the data flow makes it difficult to interpret it without a team dedicated to analyzing it.

Digital illiteracy

The problem is not so much technological as it is cultural: it is not counting on the people on whom this responsibility falls to be prepared to do so.

Literacy is made up of the ability to read, work, analyze, and argue with data. Reading implies understanding what they are and what they represent; work consists of creating, acquiring, and managing them; analyzing means filtering, classifying, and comparing them; and arguing means using them to support a larger narrative to communicate a message.

80% of prisoners in the US are illiterate. There is a direct relationship between success and literacy. Education must train in intellectual skills and technology.
Another fundamental problem that affects the quality of the data is its abundance. 15 years ago, finding the right information was like discovering an oasis in the desert. Currently, you have to look for fresh water in the middle of the ocean.

A key factor to properly analyze is the democratization of data, which information scientists, business experts, developers, and engineers work on them in an agile, open and simple way. Part of the problem is the great dispersion of the data.

The myth of the Excel spreadsheet

Excel has become, by default, the self-service tool par excellence, and this is a problem to guarantee the quality of the data. In Excel, everyone modifies the information as it suits him and draws different conclusions from the same document. This problem is called data pollution and it is the daily life of medium and large companies around the world. But excess data does not have to be a problem if it is well worked, it is never too much when it is well managed.

Companies must transform the way they work with data to provide relevant solutions and, for this, understand what information they need to answer each question. There are other reasons why the analysis systems are not left to make the decisions. Sometimes, the system does not know certain relevant sources of information when making a decision. There is also mistrust in the system: it was built by people and can be buggy.

A brain is a belief machine

According to surveys, 60% believe in demons, 42% in ghosts, 32% in UFOs, 26% in astrology, 23% in witches, and 20% in reincarnation. In another from Reader’s Digest, 43% believed that they can read minds, 50% have had a premonition of something that happened, plus 66% say they can feel when someone looks at them, and 62%, that they could know who called before answering the phone.

Using data, the brain finds patterns, fills them with content, attributes meaning, and intention to them. The brain connects them with patterns of meanings that explain why things happen and transforms them into beliefs that interpret reality. They are mental models.

The innate tendency is to see patterns even where there are none. Nature has no intentions, neither moral nor purpose: we are the ones who see them everywhere. A special role is attributed to “mirror neurons”, which are activated both when one individual acts and when the same action is performed by another.

Religion moves by faith and science by evidence, religion offers certainties; science, doubts; religion proposes supernatural explanations; science is content with how fantastic nature is. The desirable thing is to exercise rational thought and not pseudoscience. The brain’s challenge is to understand itself.

Believe or not believe

The verbs create and believe are conjugated the same in the first person: “I believe.” According to the Bible, God created man in his image and likeness and endowed him with his creative power. The creative when innovative is the best imitator of God on earth.

When Gillette wanted to create a product for all men and quit his job, he decided to use his powers of observation. He was astonished to see many men with their faces cut off. And his idea for the razor came up. An idea that became matter.

Everything we do is based on beliefs, the important thing is to judge them by what they produce. A closed ideology can be sheltered by both a religious and a scientist. They can sweep like trash, under the rug, whatever the other brings. Science itself changed over time and its ideas arise from beliefs, different from the credulous but beliefs nonetheless. Einstein himself was horrified that his science was used to build the atomic bomb. Neither science nor religion solved the drama of poverty or perfected the education that is what makes the citizens of the future. Let’s make this world a better place to live.

There are no facts, there are interpretations

A good theory is created in contact with the facts, anticipates others that are not known or did not occur, detects causes, and predicts effects. The theory is articulated with practice. Ignorance or disregard for natural laws, action without feedback, generates catastrophes. The result can be that hell that is full of good intentions. For Keynes, models must adapt to reality and not reality to the model. A theory without relation to practice is as bad as a practice without theory. Good theories result from experimentation and observation. There is nothing more practical than a good theory. It is supported by an intuition affirmed by the evidence of the facts.

It's fair to say that, despite the seemingly definitive tests in 1988.

The status of the Shroud of Turin